Small and intermediate sized trees were harvested in 24 forests with monitoring of both lichen and moss populations. Forest plots were surveyed before and six years after the removal of about 25% of the tree basal area.
The increase in lichen density was greatest on oaks with small diameters and deep bark crevices. The researchers conclude that "A mild form of biofuel harvesting may represent sustainable resource-use in these forests, compatible with conservation. However, part of the forest should be kept untouched for species vulnerable to changes in microclimatic conditions and for evaluation of long-term effects."